Now a small but growing number of senior managers have found that practitioners of a new technical specialty—financial engineering—can help them achieve their companies’ strategic objectives. They have found that, like other technological breakthroughs such as cheap computing power, financial engineering has the potential not only to reduce the cost of existing activities but also to make possible the development of new products, services, and markets.
The notion that financial engineering—the use of derivatives to manage risk and create customized financial instruments—can advance a company’s strategic goals might contradict the impression one gets from recent stories in the press. In many of these tales, traders within the finance staff use derivatives to speculate on the steepness of the yield curve or on movements of exchange rates. It appears that these bets have not been driven by the company’s business strategy and that senior managers have been unaware of choices made deep within their finance organizations. When misguided wagers backfire, companies lose millions and executives lose their jobs. Managers who seek to avoid disasters certainly must pay careful attention to these cautionary tales. Nevertheless, these accounts could easily give the impression that financial engineering is not used, and indeed should not be used, by nonfinancial companies to advance core business goals. That impression would be wrong.
It is well to recognize the pitfalls of new technologies, but failure to appreciate their true competitive value can be shortsighted and ultimately hazardous. Forward-looking managers need to keep abreast of their rivals’ successful uses of promising breakthroughs like financial engineering. Unfortunately, those are the stories that remain untold. Were they to be told, managers would learn of leading organizations that have used financial engineering to solve classic and vexing business problems. These are not narrow finance problems that involve shaving a few basis points off financing costs or shedding transaction exposures arising from sales abroad. Rather, they are broad strategic problems—in marketing, production, human resources, investor relations, and strategic restructuring—for which advanced financial techniques have offered new solutions. This article presents five case studies that illustrate innovative applications of financial engineering and offers managers guidance for determining when such techniques are appropriate.